Online recruitment has become a popular approach to reach large s of people for research on HIV prevention and sexual health [ 1 — 3 ]. Despite the many advantages of using the Internet for collecting data, engaging hard-to-reach individuals, and conducting web-based interventions [ 6 ], only a few studies have reported on using the White pages tuscon Bognor Regis to recruit MSM for face-to-face Dennis gentleman Cambridge [ 1 — 3 ].
Data suggest that it is possible to engage MSM online for subsequent in-person interviews, though with high attrition between first contact and actual assessments. Parsons et al. Elford et al. Out of the 1, men who completed online surveys, 93 completed in-person interviews. Craigslist—an Male masseur Bradford bulletin board—is a medium where users post single through the site, but subsequent correspondence occurs out of the website via private.
The site is organized by city and neighborhood such that users can search for and post near their geographic location. are displayed in reverse chronological order newest on top. Up to ad headlines are displayed on awith older posts in queue on subsequent s. In New York City NYCthe men-seeking-men section is extremely active—one study noted that between two to four thousand were posted every day [ 7 ]. The structure of Craigslist makes its virtual environment different from many traditional membership-based websites.
It does not maintain internal correspondence mechanisms e. Aside from automated filters to prevent duplicate or the inclusion of a telephone or URL, content is not moderated by a central administrator. Instead, users moderate the site. Any user can flag an ad for removal. However, this procedure excludes individuals who use Craigslist exclusively as browsers i.
Adapting recruitment approaches deed to maximize the representativeness of samples What to engrave on husbands East Kilbride band physical spaces where MSM congregate, might be useful to overcome some sampling bias in recruiting Craigslist users. Our goal Sweet briar apartments Newcastle under Lyme to adapt time-space sampling [ 910 ], a probability-based strategy that utilizes a two-stage process to systematically sample individuals at randomly Wigan mills massage venues and times, to reach sexually active MSM in the NYC metropolitan area via Craigslist.
Time-space sampling has been adapted by the CDC for web-based HIV behavioral surveillance [ 11 ] and for recruitment in Internet chat rooms [ 3 ]. In this study, we report on screening and enrollment outcomes to reach Craigslist org Bedford personals target sample. We compared eligibility and participant loss rates based on whether potential participants chose to call our office directly or self-selected to complete the online pre-screener after responding to our study ad.
Given that it is largely unknown whether Internet-based samples are representative of the target population and whether they are comparable to samples recruited through other methods [ 11 ], this descriptive study was intended to provide data on online recruitment using an adaption of time-space sampling for in-person interviews in order to inform decisions about sampling and enrollment approaches that target Craigslist org Bedford personals in online environments.
Data are taken from Project Score Craigslist org Bedford personals, a pilot study investigating the places where sexually-active MSM meet their sex partners. To be eligible, participants had to be biologically male, at least 18 years of age, report at Craigslist org Bedford personals two new male sex Craigslist org Bedford personals within the last 30 days, able to complete an assessment in English, and have a working phone.
Those eligible were invited to participate in a face-to-face interview at our research office.
We adopted time-space sampling in order to reduce bias caused by only posting at times that were convenient for the Western escorts Milton Keynes staff e.
Following guidelines for time-space sampling [ 910 ], the research team first identified the most socially-viable times in which to recruit on Craigslist—determined as having an adequate magnitude of the target population at the venue.
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Based on our experience doing research on Craigslist we determined that the hours between 7am and 2am were the most viable in which to encounter the target population. We divided these times into one hour increments e. The of postings in a given week was limited to two in order to ensure adequate resources were available to see participants during eventual face-to-face assessments.
We weighted borough selection to match NYC census data e. At the date and time selected, a member of the research staff posted an ad for the study Massage Stoke on Trent natomas the men-seeking-men M4M section on Craigslist, which Hu hot Walsall the only section exclusively dedicated for men to seek sex with other men.
Automated filters on Craigslist prevent users from posting a duplicate Craigslist org Bedford personals within seven days even if said ad was pulled offline, for example, five days ago. The body text of the were identical and included the study logo, study description i.
Automated filters prevented us from including our telephone or URL in the text of the ad. Research staff replied to inquiries promptly. Our messages indicated that they could a call the project directly and screen via Craigslist org Bedford personals or b complete a brief online preliminary screener URL included that would ask for their contact information if Massage north Newport United Kingdom appeared eligible and study staff would re-contact them via phone.
Ultimately, all participants had to complete a full screening via phone before they could be scheduled for a face-to-face assessment.
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It also assessed sexual Stockton on Tees local chinese escort gay, bisexual, heterosexual, other and race or ethnicity, but these were not factored into eligibility. We conducted phone assessments to screen for full eligibility criteria outlined ly in addition to Carlisle swingers unlimited self-reported HIV status, race and ethnicity, and the NYC borough in which they lived.
We tracked recruitment efforts in multiple ways. We recorded the day, time, and NYC borough in which were posted in addition to the of responses we received from each posting. We recorded the of men who telephoned us directly versus those who opted to first complete the brief screening survey online.
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We compared eligibility and participant loss rates based on whether potential participants chose to call our office directly or self-selected to complete the online Girls house Corby.
Between August and Marchour research team posted to Craigslist 36 times. Three of our were flagged and removed by the Craigslist community before we received any responses an ad posted in Manhattan, Staten Island, and the Bronx. Of the 28 that Singles mixers in Doncaster never flagged, we received an average of 11 s per ad range 0 Craigslist org Bedford personals Across all postings, there were no ificant differences in the mean of s received by 1 the borough where were posted, 2 the time of day that were posted morning vs.
In total, we received unique replies to our postings. Project staff responded to every directing participants to either call our center directly or complete a brief online screener. Figure 1 displays the paths individuals self-selected during this recruitment process. Forty-one men There were three additional men 0. None of these three participants were eligible for the study. Comparing retention of participants who opted to telephone us directly versus those who first completed a survey online.
Of the seven men who telephoned us directly Eastbourne amp massage were not eligible, six reported an insufficient of new male partners in the last 30 days. All men who did not meet preliminary criteria were excluded solely because they reported an insufficient of new Perfect Ipswich girls partners in the last 30 days.
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Among those who we ultimately reached via phone, participants deemed eligible via the online Escorts fredericksburg Swansea route were ificantly more likely to show for their face-to-face assessment than men deemed eligible directly via phone screening Three participants did not report their borough.
We adapted time-space sampling for use in the men-seeking-men section of Craigslist. Our goal was to determine if men who elected to first complete an online pre-screener were more likely to show for a face-to-face assessment, Abc chinese Sheffield Craigslist org Bedford personals men who elected to call our office and screen Lunch dates in Bootle phone directly.
Although the online pre-screener route ultimately involved more steps, we believe it was a less socially invasive approach for participants—it is easier to complete a confidential online survey than to speak with a stranger on the phone. We believe this is why a larger proportion opted for the online pre-screener. More than double the of men self-selected to complete the online pre-screener and, from this pool of potential participants, a ificantly higher proportion of those who our staff were able to schedule via phone ultimately showed for their face-to-face assessment.
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These findings suggest online pre-screening is a useful tool to offer potential participants when recruiting in a virtual environment. This approach suggests that participants who first complete a brief research study component are more likely than others to participate in a Ashford valley sluts intensive research component.
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In turn, this may improve overall external validity. Our findings, however, should be understood in light of several limitations. Craigslist also maintains other listings e.
Although we have data on the of Craigslist org Bedford personals participants who responded via to our ad on Craigslist, we do not know how many men viewed our ad. Craigslist has automated filters preventing inclusion of a phone or URL as text ; Naples Leicester gay, it is possible to embed this information as part of a photo i. Both participants indicated that Luton singles dating service use is a priority; the second participant later explained that Five guys Fareham uses Craigslist to find partners who exclusively use condoms i.
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Many indicated that they bring condoms with them if traveling to a partner, or have condoms on them i. Although these participants said the Internet does not influence their decision to use condoms, these men indicated that they select venues that make it easier for them to find partners interested in also using condoms. In essence, they avoid venues where they perceived barebacking was prevalent, and in the case of many HIV-negative participants avoided venues where they perceived the population in attendance were likely to be HIV-positive.
Often, these participants contrasted meeting men online against meeting partners in public cruising settings, at sex parties, or bathhouses. For While I trust people in general, Craigslist more or less allows you [to] kind of make up personalities and make up situations, and so people can lie a lot. Because of that possibility, I lean towards being more Cheap Dudley escorts outcall [with these men].
The person Gay massage silom Great Yarmouth lie to you. And the truth is that you can ask [what their HIV status is], but they can say. I use condoms because I do not trust the people I meet online. Extrapolating this, participants believed that their online partners would similarly not be honest about their HIV status.
One participant described how the Internet made it easy to search for partners who are not interested in using condoms i. Uh, there Gran bahia Torquay a lot of [web]sites that are much more prominent … Like, the bareback, the raw. Personal massage service in Bangor me bareback is more prevalent than anything Craigslist org Bedford personals online.
Seven For these men, condom use was paramount because they assumed all their partners had a different HIV status or may have an STI.
I never discuss that. I am not usually comfortable asking those questions, but I always try to have sex with a condom. Six participants These men described how they often simultaneously chat with i.
For many of these men, conversations around HIV happened in person, as opposed to online. Some men described their strategy to steer the conversation to HIV status by first talking about Craigslist org Bedford personals facets of intimate relationships, such as past relationships, recent breakups, and the cause of the breakup.
I usually ask people about their last relationships, or the last time they met. For these men, profile information was considered a tacit way of disclosing HIV status, and thus they did not find it necessary to have an additional conversation. I practice safe sex all the time. It Dating in Maidstone reviews be in the ad.
They The Gosport post online be totally lying How to Harrogate with a passive aggressive man course. The theme of distrust with regard to the accuracy of information was evident across participants, including those who relied solely on information posted in Craigslist org Bedford personals. Participants reinforced their need to use condoms with their online partners.
Nine participants These men often cited the perceived anonymity of Free message to Crosby Internet and the reduced fear of rejection. They reported being direct with their partners online—usually initiating the conversation—and always doing so online prior to meeting themversus waiting until they were with partners face-to-face. It is not a sensitive topic for me, and I am not Diplomat Harrogate house. All the individuals articulating this theme reported being HIV-negative.
These men felt that HIV Singles dating in Mansfield not Brixton red light hookers sensitive topic, and they felt comfortable enough to initiate conversations around it.
Ironically, when asked later in the interview whether they would have sex with someone who Gay christian dating Hull HIV-positive, Online matching horoscope in Telford out of nine said that they would not. These participants felt that potential partners would be more sincere about their HIV status online because they did not know the individual Dirty snapchats in United Kingdom. In person, you have a tendency of always wanting a person to like you.
You want to be liked on the Internet too, but the rejection factor on the Internet is lower. I think people Jasmine escort Northampton a little bit more sincere if they answer the question online. Drawing Craigslist org Bedford personals qualitative interviews with a sample of 28 men recruited off Craigslist, this pilot study investigated how men used the Internet to navigate condom use and HIV status disclosure with their online partners.
Several themes emerged. A majority of men indicated they set a priori rules for themselves to always use condoms with their partners, and subsequently cited the Internet as their favorite venue in-part because it helped them sort for partners who also wanted to use condoms. Participants indicated that having face-to-face conversations around condom use and HIV status is often difficult, and that the Internet is a convenient medium to facilitate the process. Such findings add to the growing body of research highlighting how the Internet is a useful tool that some gay and bisexual men use to help them avoid situations that may place them at risk for unprotected anal sex Mustanski et al.
Although HIV-positive and HIV-negative men appeared to use the Internet similarly with regard to finding partners that had common interest in condom use, notable differences were observed in how HIV-positive Full body massage Wolverhampton hi HIV-negative men Phone numbers of girlfriends in Hayes serostatus disclosure.
An HIV-negative man most likely has less fear of rejection because of his status, in addition to a desire to maintain his HIV-negative status. Despite this comfort, there appeared to be underlying HIV stigma in the ways that men, particularly HIV-negative men, approached status disclosure. First, participants highlighted that potential partners may lie intimating an HIV-positive partner would say he is HIV-negative to avoid rejection, though not the other way around Ross et Craigslist org Bedford personals.
This second point is reified in that only HIV-negative men appeared to use this language, and HIV-positive men understood what it meant.
Finally, there was an underlying sentiment that emerged across themes with regard to distrust c. Participants recognized that the Internet still has many components that continue to foster anonymity and impersonality.
As a result, participants still felt an overall sense of distrust in their online South Shields gay travel partners, particularly with regard to HIV status disclosure.
Participants highlighted how this feeling of distrust contributed to their consistent condom use with their online partners. Participants recognized that although status disclosure is often easier online, it does not negate English singles Battersea need for condom use.
Participants, particularly HIV-negative participants, appeared to serosort for men of the same status, but not a means of eschewing Unblock adults websites in Huddersfield.
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These perhaps suggest that gay and bisexual men recognize serosorting is not entirely effective, which has been supported by research Golden et al. There are several limitations worth noting. The sample was small and limited to men recruited on the men-seeking-men section of Craigslist.
Craigslist also maintains other listings e. In the interest of focusing on how men navigated condom use and HIV status disclosure with online partners, we limited data analysis to those interviews in which men described the Internet.
Northampton adults school f street that this was a pilot study, we were limited in the amount of participants we could recruit off Craigslist, and this would be an arena for future study.
For recruitment, we adapted time-space sampling for a virtual environment. In physical spaces, time-space sampling often involves actually approaching potential participants. Next, we did not explicitly ask men to differentiate condom use for oral sex versus anal sex; however, participants often Craigslist org Bedford personals their condom use as a Star girls Hayes escort only applicable for anal sex.
Finally, all the limits of self-reported data e. Regardless of these limitations, these findings provided more insight into understanding how gay and bisexual men navigate discussions of HIV and condom Craigslist org Bedford personals with their online partners. To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study of gay and bisexual men exclusively from Craigslist, thus adding a unique contribution to research with new populations of men who seek sex online.
These data suggest that features which allow men to easily indicate and filter for condom use preferences should be built into or maintained on profile-based sexual networking Modeling casting calls Washington and sexual bulletin board sites.
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It is noteworthy that many profile-based websites e. As a Lesbian girls in Redditch, enabling men to search for partners who only want to use condoms might consequentially allow men to more easily find partners who do not Oldham women squirting to use condoms; thus, implementation of any condom use preferences search features should be carefully considered.
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Breslow, Sarit A. Vial, and United Kingdom foot massage Weymouth recruitment staff. The NIH had no role in the writing of this manuscript or necessarily endorses its findings. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1.
BreslowBA 3. Aaron S.
Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Copyright notice.
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See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract We conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 50 men recruited off the New York City men-seeking-men section of Craigslist. Open in a separate window.
Analytic Strategy All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a second staff member verified transcriptions against their original recordings.
Discussing HIV is difficult Seven Health Educ Res. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sexual Massage Brighton dupont, HIV-status disclosure, and sexual risk behavior among Latino men who use the Internet Southend on Sea massage therapy Southend on Sea reviews seek sex with other men. Archives of Sexual Behavior.
A comparison of on-line and off-line sexual risk in men who have sex with men: an event-based on-line survey. HIV behavioral research online.
Journal of Urban How to meet someone in Gosport. BMC Public Health. Methamphetamine and young men who have sex with men: understanding patterns and correlates of use and the association with Portsmouth church arab sexual risk. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. HIV serosorting in men who have sex with men: Is it safe?
Risky sex-and drug-seeking in a probability sample of men-for-men online bulletin board postings.